Urinary tract infections (UTI) are one of the more common medical conditions we encounter in urology.
A UTI can involve any part of the urinary tract including the kidney, ureters, bladder, or urethra. The following terms corresponds to the location of the infection such pyelonephritis (kidney), cystitis (bladder), urethritis/prostatitis (urethra/prostate).
Females tend to be more susceptible to UTIs regardless of age.
Common symptoms of Urinary Tract Infections
- Frequency / urgency
- Loss of urinary control
- Back pain
- Pelvic or abdominal pain
- Foul-odor urine
Risk Factors that lead to Urinary Tract Infections
- A shorten urethra (female)
- Sexual activity
- Declining effects of estrogen on the vaginal mucosa
- Congenital anomalies causing urinary reflux from the bladder to the kidney
- Blockage of urine from the kidney to the bladder and/or from the bladder to the urethra leading to the retention of urine
- Presence of a foreign body such as a catheter or stent
- Immunosuppression caused by medication such as steroid or medical condition such as diabetes.
- Urinary incontinence
Common workup that we perform to evaluate a UTI include:
- Detail history and physical examination
- Laboratory studies such as CBC, metabolic panel, Urinalysis and culture
- Imaging such as ultrasound and CT scan
- Functional voiding studies such as uroflow and post-void residual studies or urodynamics studies